Journal of Food Intolerance
Science of the effects of food on health, behaviour and learning
This online Journal will seek to provide an outlet for interesting science that is not otherwise being published in this field.
In time we intend to develop an Advisory Board and establish a panel of peer reviewers but rather than wait until the Food Intolerance Network has the resources for this task we have decided to start this Journal and support publication of work that otherwise has difficulty finding a home.
Recent papers published elsewhere that may be of interest to scientists in this field
- Millichap JG, Yee MM (2012) The Diet Factor in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275). http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2012/01/04/peds.2011-2199
This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely.
Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega23 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids.
The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed.
In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3 supplements may warrant a trial. A greater attention to the education of parents and children in a healthy dietary pattern, omitting items shown to predispose to ADHD, is perhaps the most promising and practical complementary or alternative treatment of ADHD. Pediatrics 2012;129:1–8
- Hayder H, Mueller U and Bartholomaeus A (2012) Review of Intolerance Reactions to Food and Food Additives. Int. food risk anal. j., 2011, Vol. 1, No. 2, 23-32. http://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/26271/InTech-Review_of_intolerance_reactions_to_food_and_food_additives.pdf
Abstract There is ongoing interest in the community in the area of intolerance reactions to food and food additives. To inform future discussions on this subject, FSANZ initiated a scientific review to give further consideration to key issues underpinning the public debate. This paper provides an overview of the contemporary understanding of food intolerance, and highlights the individual nature of intolerance reactions and the wide range of food chemicals, whether naturally occurring or added to food, which may contribute to intolerance reactions. The clinical manifestations of intolerance described in the literature vary widely, both in relation to the symptoms reported and the substances implicated. Symptoms associated with food intolerance reactions range from mild to severe but the effects are largely transient. The immune system is not involved in these reactions, and therefore these forms of food intolerance are not allergies.
Food substances most commonly associated with intolerance reactions are naturally occurring chemicals such as salicylates and biogenic amines. While some food additives may contribute to intolerance reactions, clinical observations suggest that affected individuals are usually sensitive to several substances, including both natural food chemicals as well as artificial and natural food additives. Food additives, particularly food colours, are perceived to be a major cause of intolerance reactions in the community. However, except for sulphites, clinical evidence of a causal link between food additives and intolerance reactions is limited, and the frequency, severity and spectrum of symptoms are yet to be determined.
In Australia and New Zealand, the approval of food additives follows a rigorous process based on two principles: the additive must fulfil a technological function, and must not pose a safety concern to consumers at the proposed level of use. Approved additives must be declared on the food label. This regulatory approach ensures a high level of safety for all consumers and supports dietary management for individuals affected by food intolerance.
(COMMENT by Dr H Dengate: Unfortunately the review was been written from an allergist’s point of view and appears uncomfortable with considering behavioural and learning dimensions to reactions. Many of the conclusions drawn are not drawn from quoted evidence but from personal views. Of the authors and those acknowledged, only Dr Loblay has written sparingly in this area. It is a pity that the Food Intolerance Network was not consulted in the process of this review so that other references could have been considered. See a full list of 65 references not considered)
Burke, K 2008, 'The effects of food allergy and food intolerance on the development of concepts of healthy eating and nutrition: incidence rates in an Australian population' in Allan, A, Bell, C, Cross, D, Devine, A, Martins, R, McGuigan, M, Newton, R & Rudd, C (eds.) 2008, VARIO Health Conference: physical and mental wellness - integrative approaches to Health. Conference proceedings, 1st and 2nd December, 2008. Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, pp. 32-39.
A survey of food intolerance in an Australian population reported an incidence rate for diagnosed food intolerance of 19% of households. Further, because diagnoses of food intolerances may not be conclusively made until adulthood, many individuals may suffer the adverse effects of this chronic condition for years prior to diagnosis. FULL TEXT
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